Tag Archives: doctors

People of Almonte — Past Clippings of Claire Heslop

People of Almonte — Past Clippings of Claire Heslop

CLIPPED FROMRed Deer AdvocateRed Deer, Alberta, Canada25 May 1998, Mon  •  Page 15

TORONTO Science whiz-kids Adam Bly of Montreal and Claire Hes-lop of Almonte, Ont., have found they have a lot in common since meeting recently in Texas. They share the same birthday both turned 17 on May 13 and like to hang out in science laboratories in their spare time, after school and on weekends. Its turned out to be a lucrative pastime. In Fort Worth, they each picked up $8,000 US for capturing top honors at the 1998 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, which drew nearly 1,200 competitors from 34 countries.

About a dozen Canadian teens from across the country made the prize list, but Bly and Heslop went home with the most cash. In an interview, the two are enthusiastic and exuberant and talk a mile a minute. Its a handy skill when you have to impress judges in a nine-minute presentation in Blys case, and 12 minutes for Heslop. We both had our birthdays on judging day, Heslop says with an infectious laugh. You try to sucker the judges somehow subliminally by mentioning its your birthday. I forgot, a smiling Bly begs to differ. I was so focused on the judging that I woke up at 6 that morning and only at 11 did I think that it was my birthday.

Heslop won first place in the medicine and health category for her project The B in Spina Bifida: The Methionine Challenge. Bly was No. 1 in the biochemistry field with his entry Fusion of Epithelial Cadherin cDNA to Green Fluorescent Protein: Phase H. No erupting vinegar-and-baking soda volcanoes for this pair. They chuckle good-naturedly as they acknowledge that most people dont have a clue about what theyre talking about when they explain their projects. Heslop began her scientific journey at age 14, when she was a volunteer lab technician at Ottawa General Hospital. There was a small discovery that they made… related to the effects of Vitamin A on developing (chick) embryos.

They had a batch of embryos that didnt develop the malformations they were expecting and the only thing they could trace it back to was an amino acid called methionine, which had somehow corrected the batch. I decided I wanted to take that on and discover how far that could go. I spent the last two years examining it through different projects. Folic acid prevents neural tube malformation 50 to 70 per cent of the time, she says. The rest of the time, theres often a developmental defect in the metabolism and no amount of folic acid can correct that. So what Im looking at is something that will work in the times when ordinary preventive medicines will fail. And thats methionine amino acid.


CLIPPED FROMThe Ottawa CitizenOttawa, Ontario, Canada07 Jul 1997, Mon  •  Page 14

She has already been offered scholarships at two prominent U.S. universities, even though she is only in Grade 11. But she is also the quintessential teen. “I do do other things,” she said. “I’ve co-hosted a couple of art shows in school and I’ve displayed some art in Almonte. A lot of painting. And I like going out with friends.”

Miss Heslop’s scientific prowess at the international level started largely because of a Grade 8 science fair project on Lactancia milk, which sent her to compete in Whitehorse in 1995. “As soon as I got a taste of what the competition is about and how much they really honour these young Canadian scientists, I wanted to do it again. The more I became involved in medicine and science the more I began to appreciate it,” she said. Her quest to help find a cure for spina bifida a congenital neural tube defect that causes vertebrae to protrude in roughly two per cent of the population began two summers ago with the help of May Griffith, a University of Ottawa assistant professor of cellular and molecular medicine and Heslop family friend.

Dr. Griffith had a post-doctoral student under her direction who didn’t have enough time to continue some research related to the effects of vitamin A on chick embryos. High levels of vitamin A are known to cause spina bifida. The student found that methionine was somehow linked to embryos that didn’t develop malformations. Miss Heslop decided to take the study on and, under the supervision of Dr. Griffith, has been trying to determine how methionine can prevent developmental defects. Her project garnered a gold medal at the Canadian national high school science awards last spring in Regina, but to comply with the rules of the international competition, Miss Heslop completely redesigned her study. Dr. Griffith is amazed at how intuitive a scientist Miss Heslop has become. “I think (her research is) very impressive for a high school student We’re hoping to be able to publish it in some form.” “We’re looking at one part of the spinal cord that hasn’t been looked at,” Dr. Griffith said. “So anything new is significant, but of course this is an animal model so when you talk about a cure there’s this whole process of going from animal models, all kinds of animal models, to all the clinical trials.

This is way, way, way before that. I would consider this basic science research.” Meanwhile, the national capital region has reason to celebrate the efforts of another science whiz-kid. Ottawa’s Christopher Tremblay won a silver medal at last week’s Canada-Wide Science Fair held in Timmins for his project, Interactions Subatomiques. The 18-year-old OAC student at College Catholique Samuel-Genest in Gloucester has spent some 4,000 hours on a computer program that traces the three-dimensional interaction of subatomic particles in an accelerator.

CLIPPED FROMThe Ottawa CitizenOttawa, Ontario, Canada23 May 1998, Sat  •  Page 28

CLIPPED FROMThe Ottawa CitizenOttawa, Ontario, Canada30 May 2000, T

Emergency Medicine: Dr. Heslop – New Faculty Appointment

Emergency Medicine click

Meet Claire Heslop, the top Canadian finisher at UTMB

“I had no idea I was in the top 20 until I received a text about it from a friend”

The Doctors of Almonte … In the First Half of the Century – Archibald Albert Metcalfe

The Doctors of Almonte … In the First Half of the Century – John F. Hanly, M. D. 1868-1927 John Dunn

The Doctors of Almonte … – John Francis Dunn– Almonte Gazette

The Doctors of Almonte … In the First Half of the Century – John King Kelly — Almonte Gazette — John Dunn

So What was the Almonte Cottage Victorian Hospital?

The Lynchs of Almonte — Genealogy

The Donneybrook in the Almonte Council Chambers … who won???

Union Almonte and Ramsay Contagious Hospital — “The Pest House”

The Tragic Death of Dr. Mostyn Shocked the People of Almonte

Thomas Raines Almonte — US Confederate Soldier Mayor and Dentist– Biological Mystery!!!

Becoming a Nurse — Rosamond Memorial Hospital

The Almonte Hospital Hoopla

Susie’s Kitchen Band– Names Names Names

Tales From the Doctor’s House — John Dunn

Tales From the Doctor’s House — John Dunn

Source: “Tales from the Doctors House” by John Dunn.-

J.P. Dunn, 1995
Length88 pages

Built in 1868, John Dunn fondly remembers his time in the stone Doctor’s House in Almonte. As a child, it made him feel special. After all, all the important buildings in Almonte were made of stone: the railway station, the high school, the post office, and the churches. His father, Dr. John Dunn had inherited the house in 1910 from the previous doctor, Dennis Lynch, who had inherited it from the first doctor in Almonte, William Mostyn.

Thanks to the late Lucy Connelly Poaps I now have this in my posession.

You can also purchase this book from the North Lanark Museum click

John Francis Dunn 1904

Thursday, May 13, 1971

The Doctors of Almonte … In the First half of the century – John Francis Dunn Almonte Gazette

In those days, even as at present, Almonte had three doctors, a medical triumvirate whose names were household words in the community and the district. Alphabetically, they were Dunn, Kelly and Metcalfe. The first was my father.

He came to Almonte in the later months of 1911, and the circumstances were both fortuitous and amusing. In early August of that year the town lost Dr. D. P. Lynch through death. Shortly after, Father J. F. McNally, newly appointed parish priest in Almonte (a Prince Edward Islander by birth, and subsequently Archbishop of Halifax) wrote to my father at Elgin in Leeds County, pointing out the death of Dr. Lynch.

“a man whose place in the community it would not be easy to fill, for he was not only physician, but friend and counsellor to almost all of our people in the district, and to many outsiders as well.”

The letter concluded with a request for Dr. Dunn to come to Almonte, and added an irresistible bonus attraction:

“If it be an extra inducement, the late doctor was chairman of the Reform or Liberal association in the riding, so that that honour likely awaits you too.”

Physician, friend, and counsellor. Each of the medical trio of the first half of the century fitted that description, my father not the least. This, then is the way it was with him.

For eighty-five years he gave his day of birth as nineteenth of June, and only then did he discover from the parish records that he had been born on the nineteenth of May. In any event, it all began May, 1871, and he was named John Francis Dunn.

It was an exciting time to be born. The previous summer, Paris, the city of Lights on the Seine saw the Kaiser’s troops in triumphal procession on Champs Elysees, a terrifying witness of ‘might makes right.’ And in the ancient city of the Caesar’s on the Tiber, a solemn conclave proclaimed as dogma the papal infallibility.

In a muddy settlement of three hundred, called Fort Garry, at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers in the domain of the “Governor and Company of adventurers of England trading into Hudson’s Bay, a semi-literate half-breed named Louis Riel had the unparalleled nerve to proclaim a ‘provisional government’ of Indians and Metis in opposition to Queen Victoria and pax Britannica. And in Almonte on the Mississippi, the parishioners of St. Mary’s celebrated the laying of the corner stone of a new church being built on the ashes of the former edifice which had been destroyed by fire on the preceding Christmas Eve.

It was only five years after Lee’s surrender of the Confederate Army of Virginia at Appomattox Court House, and five years before the Dominion Telegraph Company of Toronto had an astounding experience , later told by its first president in these words:

“We received a request from a Professor Bell who had a contraption made of magnets, Russian sheet iron and a coil of wire which he wished to test on our telegraph lines between Brantford and Paris for the purpose of ascertaining whether it would talk like a human being or not. We thought him a crank, but permitted the test to be made, not expecting a miracle which occurred. It did talk, much to everyone’s surprise.”

In a pioneer community every human activity has its order and value. Education is always a luxury item, and those who obtain it learn to appreciate its worth, perhaps because its interruptions and uncertainties area true mirror of the unsettled life of the community. So it was with my father. His education at the village school was interrupted early by his mother’s death, and the eternal necessity of helping out on the family’s marginal acres.

The manner of his mother’s passing was peculiarly poignant, and probably left with him a strong feeling of compassion for those in suffering which is so characteristic of every physician. This is how he told it to me:

“it was a fine Saturday morning in late April when I was in my eleventh year. The sun was warm and pleasant. A cousin of mine from over at Phillipsville had driven into the yard with a horse and buggy, and all the men had gathered to get the news of friends and relatives whom they had not seen during the winter months. In the midst of the talk, my mother came to the door of the house, called me over, and said: ‘Have your father ask the men to come into the house and start the prayers for the dying, for I know I am about to die.” ….. And. indeed, she was dead within the hour.”

His father’s concern for his mother’s suffering also left an imprint on my father, and probably fixed even more deeply the element of compassion, and prompted his interest in the study of medicine. For he said:

“My mother had been ill for some time with what I now know was the scourge of the Irish – tuberculosis! All known resources of medical science had proven ineffective; yet my father had heard of a doctor in Ottawa who had gained a reputation for bring able to heal where all else had failed. In spite of advice to the contrary, he would not be content without at least trying, no matter what the cost nor how slight the hope. The doctor was persuaded to come out from Ottawa, but , of course, his efforts were to be to no avail.

In due time the doctor’s bill came, amounting to $40.00. My father sold 17 steers at two dollars each to pay his obligation and, in fact, the balance remained a debt which was not discharged until some years later when I paid it off”.

Hard times indeed for a young Canadian nation, just fifteen years old, and with precious little in the way of resources to ward off the impact or lessen the cruelty of economic depression! The fur, fish, farm economy of the pioneers had been stopped cold. We seldom know where we’ve come from; and it was that my father never complained about the Great depression of the Nineteen-Thirties: he had known the depression of the Eighteen-eighties, whose unplumbed grimness could scarcely be comprehended by those of a half century later.

At the age of twenty he realized the hopelessness of gainful and rewarding satisfaction from scratching out a subsistence living on a marginal farm, and, as so many of the same generation did, he forsook the farm for the classroom. In 1876 the Ontario Government set in being a plan to overcome economic hardship by encouraging further education. Model schools were established for each county. The Leeds County Model School was at Athens, and so thither he went at the age of twenty and took the four-year high school course in one year, and qualified at the same time to teach in the rural schools of the district.

Sweet’s Corners, Delta, Kingston. These were the places he taught, at a salary of $300.00 per year. The years of teaching had their unseen merit – they taught him that the pursuit of knowledge was terribly important, and that there must be some better way of learning than by teaching. It was only natural the that thoughts of still further education should call up in his mind the study of medicine. And, At the turn of the century, medicine meant McGill!

Lister was there! Sir Joseph Lister, the renowned teacher, whose students regarded him with something akin to awe, who impressed his students with the need to observe, to weigh cause and effect, to be scrupulous in attention to detail, – and to judge slowly. Faith indeed cometh by hearing, and Lister’s message registered with my father. Throughout his life he distrusted nostrums and quacks with equal zeal.

In 1904 he graduated in medicine from McGill, but, privately he was told that it was unlikely that he would ever practise medicine. Chesterton remarked in one of his paradoxical statements that the more we look at a thing, the less we see it. The factor of heredity might have flashed a warning signal to my father: the scourge of the Irish, the Indian and the Negro – the latest races in mankind’s history to be exposed to the tuberculin bacillus – it struck him too, at graduation!

He worked , however, at the job and the disability as a ship’s doctor and the combination of fresh air, sunshine, plenty of rest , and a natural stamina worked a miracle during the North Atlantic runs, and he made a complete and permanent recovery.

By Christmas of 1911 he had handed over his practise to his brother in Elgin, had taken up the invitation of Father McNally, and had moved into Dr. Lynch’s house in Almonte. He was becoming acquainted with the community and its people, including Mary H. Moynihan. And in July, 1917 they married.

The end of the war years in 1918 signalled the beginning of the end for the horse and buggy as the country doctor’s reliable means of transportation. Professor Bells’ contraption had proven itself for communication, and the automobile was on the verge of a breakthrough in transportation. The first of my father’s horseless carriages was a Studebaker by breed and touring by class. I well mind the 1926 Huppmobile, a great square block on wheels, and a glorious Saturday in late April when there was a trip to be made to Darling. The unshielded strength of the sun that day would doubtless burn through the blankets of snow and expose the ploughed fields to a new spring. The temptation to take the car was overpowering, and I was invited to go along, since we would be taking “the Good roads.”

We drove to Carleton Place, and on to Perth, and thence to Lanark, all the good roads. We got about a mile further , and ran aground, mired in a sea of mud at ten-thirty in the morning. Without a moment’s hesitation, my father reached behind, picked up his black bag, stepped out, and said to me: “I’ll be back.”

It was a long day, even for a Saturday. The sun shone, the snow melted, the water ran. I pitched stones at fence posts and telephone poles, first with the right hand, and then with the left. I watched the riverlets as they ran along the furrows, leaped into the ditch, and fled away. By late afternoon only tatters of snow were left by the fence rows. Then, in the distance spied two men and a team of horses. It took but a minute to hitch a chain to the bumper and for the horse to nudge the car out of its anchorage. Because the road had been stiffened with the decline of the afternoon sun, we got back to Lanark without further ado. At that point my curiousity prompted my question: “how far did you have to walk?” His reply was matter-of-fact: “About seven miles.”

But it was the calls to go out at night in dead of winter which must have been trying. They were trying indeed to the horse, for he never ceased to make his annoyance known and felt.

The procedure was simple. Essentially it consisted in fuelling up horse and driver and heating bricks in the oven to be placed in the bottom of the cutter. During this stoking-up interval, the phone would frequently ring a second time with the message: The snow is heavy in the bush and the fences are covered. Tell the doctor to take the shortcut across the fields and through the bush, and we’ll send some one to meet him with the lanterns.” Once the horse was harnessed, hitched to the cutter, and brought round to the office door, he would climb in, dressed up in buffalo coat, sheepskin hat, fur-lined gauntlets, he would set his feet on the bricks, pull the buffalo robe over his knees, snap the reins and away.

Sometimes he would be gone two days, and would return, perishing with cold, so stiff that he would literally fall out of the cutter at the office door, and the horse would walk round to the stable door on his own. His recollection of many such trips was full of admiration because everything at the table was home-grown except, the tea, sugar and salt!

He was never an accountant, and he posted few bills. But, communication was made somehow. Frequently it happened that some client would be in town on a Saturday and would leave off at the house a quarter of beef, a side of pork, or a bag of potatoes. In fact, I have the fondest recollection of a box of wild ducks which flew in from White Lake one stormy Saturday shortly after the close of the season.

By 1950, in spite of the prediction made at Graduation, he had practised medicine for half a century almost, and then came an opportunity to preach what he practised. It was the concluding banquet of the annual meeting of the Ontario Medical Association in the Chateau Laurier in Ottawa. The main ballroom overflowed with Ontario’s medical mighty. Four doctors were to be honoured with life memberships, he being one. In deference to each, a few words would be expected, and, in deference to his age, he would be last.

His theme was simple – what makes a physician, he made no apology for answering from experience. It was a cantata of moving symbolism, a gaze into the iridescent pool of human society known to the country doctor, where was mirrored the magic of medicine men throughout the ages. He spoke of the infinite mystery and inexplicable veneration attached to the physician, a privileged race amongst men to light the spark for the newly-born, to shield the flame of the fever-ridden, and to guard the guttering candle of the dying. He held out to them the ancient Hippocratic oath of selfless devotion to others, counting not the cost to self, for the physician’s too is a kind of life divine, spent in caring for the human spark on earth, and passing it undimmed to eternity. Such he showed he was.

As he spoke a pregnant hush encompassed the room: as he concluded, pandemonium erupted… He had stirred the fire divine in the breast of every doctor, and he had strummed on the heartstrings of medicine men everywhere.

It was that inner sense of sympathy and compassion for others., a characteristic which is never so well displayed as it is within the orbit of the family. Even at the age of eighty-eight, he was visiting old patients, more as friend and counsellor than as physician, for their illnesses were expiring along with their days.

One ferociously hot July evening he asked if I could take time out to drive him to see H…….. As we drove he apologized for taking up my time, and said:

“I started to walk up this afternoon, but at the bridge over the creek I was overcome with a weak turn and fell down in the roadway. I managed to crawl to the side of the road and leaned against a telephone pole for twenty minutes until enough strength returned for me to walk back home.

It was another seizure, and one day there will be another, much more massive than all the others, and the heart will not be able to stand it, and it will be the end. I can tell you these things because you can understand them. But, I wouldn’t tell your mother, she would only worry!’

His interest in new things never flagged. Early in May, 1961, he was one of the first patients in the new Almonte General Hospital. I had made a trip to Vancouver on one of the first DC-8 non-stop jet flights from Toronto. On my return I told him about it: a seven o’clock morning flight from Ottawa to Toronto, departure from Toronto at nine, and arrival in Vancouver at ten-thirty, Pacific Time. A forty-five minute bus ride to the hotel left me fifteen minutes to get to Sunday Mass at St. Mary’s Cathedral at eleven-thirty.

He pondered this leaping over the continent, and then gazed out the window to the marvellously peaceful view of the river, and said:

“The world is a most interesting place. I’ve had a full life and have enjoyed many interesting things and people. There are many more interesting things I’d like to undertake, but I know there isn’t time for me. I leave that to you and the others, for I’m ready to go.”

And so it also ended for him in the month of May, on the 28th of May, 1961, in his ninety-first year. To many in the community and the district he was indeed physician, friend and counsellor – my father.

John Dunn

15 March 1971–.from ROOTSWEB

Photo from Almonte.com

John Dunn read his bio at The Millstone

John Patrick Dunn was born in Almonte in 1919. Like his father, he had an early career as a teacher, firstly in the High School in Copper Cliff and then in the Almonte High School. He left teaching to join the federal public service in 1956 and worked in the federal capital until retirement in 1984. His retirement hobbies include tree farming and bee keeping, along with many civic endeavours, among them the public library, separate school, town council, parish council, historical society, and hospital to name a few.

Several stories of John’s describing landmark events and features of local personalities have been published in local and district newspapers and in special interest periodicals in the last decade.

The tales in this first collection of ‘The Doctor’s House’ convey a young lad’s memories and sense of privilege to grow up in a house whose stones and mortar sheltered him and his brothers and sisters as well as served daily witness to the cycle of birth and death and the care and counsel which his father, the doctor, demonstrated to all who sought him out.

The Doctors of Almonte … In the First Half of the Century – Archibald Albert Metcalfe

The Doctors of Almonte … In the First Half of the Century – John F. Hanly, M. D. 1868-1927 John Dunn

The Tragic Death of Dr. Mostyn Shocked the People of Almonte

Thomas Raines Almonte — US Confederate Soldier Mayor and Dentist– Biological Mystery!!!

So What was the Almonte Cottage Victorian Hospital?

The Donneybrook in the Almonte Council Chambers … who won???

Dr. Metcalfe Guthrie Evoy

The Doctors of Almonte … In the First Half of the Century – Archibald Albert Metcalfe

Outstanding Men — Dr. Metcalfe of Almonte

Dr. Archibald Albert “Archie” Metcalfe — The Man with the Red Toupee – John Morrow

  1. Memories of Dr. A. A. Metcalfe of Almonte– Florence Watt
  2. Will the Real Dr. Metcalf Please Stand Up? Rare Photo Found!!

Doctors Of Carleton Place You Might not Have Met

Doctors Of Carleton Place You Might not Have Met

Bogart, David Peterson Dr. -1910 David Bogart was born in Adolphustown, Lennox & Addington County. He studied medicine and took his degree of Medical Doctor in New York City. He practiced first in Brighton, then in Carleton Place, Ontario; later, he was Surgeon to the iron mines at Marmora. He moved to Whitby about 1872 where he continued his career; for many years he was Surgeon to the Grand Trunk Railway Company at Whitby. He was active in public service and in the early eighties was in the Town Council and Mayor of Whitby in 1884-1885. He was Surgeon of the 34th Regiment and was Medical Officer of Health for Whitby until failing health compelled him to resign. Dr. Bogart died at Whitby on January 16, 1910, aged 82 years 4 days.


Poole, Thomas Wesley Dr. 1831-1905 Thomas Wesley Poole was born on Nov 7, 1831 at Carleton Place, Ontario son of William Poole and Martha Condle. He started his professional career as a teacher following which he attended the Rolfe Medical School in Toronto graduating in 1856; he was united in marriage in 1858 to Elizabeth Wilson. Dr. Poole entered into the practice of his chosen profession in Norwood where he lived about 8 years before removing to Peterborough. Here he became the editor of the Weekly Review and was author of A Sketch of the Early Settlement and Subsequent Progress of the Town of Peterborough. In 1868 he located at Lindsay, wrote many scholarly articles on medical subjects and served as Mayor in 1876 and 1877. Dr. Thomas Wesley Poole died at Lindsay on Aug 28, 1905 aged 73 years 9 months 21 days. See his letters at the bottom of this.

The Ottawa Journal
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
17 Jun 1936, Wed  •  Page 7

Running, Kenneth Hewitt Dr. 1912-1964 Kenneth Hewitt Running was born at Smith Falls, Ontario on May 26, 1912 son of Richardson Running and Minnie Hewitt. He was a graduate of medicine at Queen’s University in 1936 where he was also a distinguished athlete. Following World War 11 where he served with the Royal Canadian Air Force, Dr. Running established himself at Carleton Place but soon returned to his great interest in aviation medicine and served as medical officer in the Department of National Defence and spent time at the Trenton Air Force Base. While senior medical officer at Trenton Dr. Running was privileged to accompany the R.C.A.F. contingent to the Coronation ceremonies at London, England. He attained the rank of Wing Commander and retired from military service in 1963. Dr. Kenneth Hewitt Running died at Carleton Place on July 31, 1964 aged 52 years 2 months 5 days.

Read also

The Doctor is In! George Griffith of Carleton Place

Before and After in Carleton Place –The Doctor is in!

Carleton Place Gossip October 1892 — Patterson McEwen Mansell Gillies Box etc etc

Haggart vs Dr Preston– The Little Intriguer that Pulled the String….

Shades of The Godfather in Dr. Preston’s Office in Carleton Place

Dr.Preston Was in the House — The Case of the Severed Foot

“2,000 people on the streets”–Dr. Finlay McEwen of Carleton Place

The Doctor is In! Dr. James Stewart Nichol

Ghostly Images at Doctor Johnson’s House?

Letters from Poole, Thomas Wesley Dr. 1831-1905 which you can buy here

It might not be prudent for you to give up your present good prospects, in a business with which you are already well acquainted, for the risk of success in one which you could only acquire after years of study and considerable expense. Still if you resolve upon the study of Medicine and I can help you any in your studies I will be glad to do so. Do not expect to find it all sunshine in this any more than the other path in life. I may just mention that I had a long attendance on my dropiscal patients. I frequently was called out of bed to go see her a distance of 3 1/2 miles. My bill at the lowest ought not to have been less than £10 and of this I see but little probability of getting a shilling. Some persons will pay within half a dollar or so of their account and then they think this trifle is too small to come with and will get offended if I dunned for it. Perhaps you may be doing your utmost for a patient and doing it well, when some officious neighbor or friend will step in and endeavour to undermine you, or if the disease is not knocked down the first visit and killed the second, another practitioner is called in, and just comes in time to receive the credit of the cure you were about accomplishing – There are little annoyances everywhere and in every business, and as you have good knowledge of business and good prospects before you it might not be prudent for you to throw these up for what is comparatively uncertain. Still if you are resolved to do so I will afford you every facility in my power, and by patience and perseverance you can succeed. I am afraid you cannot read all this, but my time is limited and I cannot wait to write as plain as you do. – Kind regards to yourself and sister.

Yours Affectionately,

Thomas W. Poole.

Letter #2. nd. 2 page partial letter, dated only Monday Morning, mentioning church services, new brick grammar school.

Monday Morning.

Sunday is not the most cheerful here. We have 2 or 3 churches open in the morning and home at present in the evening. I was away yesterday 4 miles in the afternoon to see a patient. The roads are hard this morning and I expect we will soon have snow. The Methodists have a new church nearly finished, a neat one for this place. They are about the strongest denomination in the village. A new brick Grammar School is being erected but will not be finished this fall. I get the “Semi Weekly Globe” newspaper from Toronto, and in it I got most of the news of the day. I have also the privilege of reading 2 or 3 other papers.

I see that Mr. Mercer was again rejected at the board. Is it true that he is married to your friend Miss Coppan.

Do you know how they are getting along in the Book Room. I suppose John Flock had left there some time ago.

I think I must close at present. Hoping to hear from you as soon as convenient.

Yours Affectionately,

T. W. Poole

Letter #3. nd. 2 page partial letter, written in the autumn of the year, regarding friends of Poole’s moving from Yorkville to Peterborough.

Mrs. Reeve and family are going to move down from Yorkville to Peterboro’ in a week or two, to reside there for a year or two. They have engaged a nice new brick house built by the Mayor of the town for himself, rent £50 per year, and the Doctor and lady will of course live with them in the same establishment.

Mr. Reeve will be very much missed about Yorkville. Mrs. Lavell is now at home on a visit. How do you get along with the “Carriage Folks” and the brick church people. I hope you will not break any of those young boy’s hearts, for although not particularly interested in them myself, I should be sorry to see them so unfortunate as to suffer from a broken heart.

The weather is becoming cool, and the nights have been quite cold.

I hope you will pardon me for not writing to you sooner.


Yours truly,


Letter #4. nd. 2 page partial letter, perhaps written in early August 1854, mentions settling in, sending for trunks in Toronto.

If you see the “Carriage folks” please give them my kind regards and tell them I was sorry to leave without bidding them good bye, but that I expect to be back to visit Toronto before long. When I get settled – if I do – could you not take a trip down to this part of the country instead of wasting your time with the girls at Whitby. The fare to Cobourg when I came was 12/6 in the cabin, 6/3 on deck from Cobourg to Rice Lake in the cars the fare is 3/- and from Rice Lake to Peterboro’ 3/9. If you left Toronto at noon, you would get here at noon next day. Dr. Lavell had a fine young son and heir on Saturday night, Lavell is doing pretty well. He had been telling me of some cases he lost, and I cannot at all agree with him in the way he says he managed them.

If I conclude not to return to Toronto for my things I will write to you the latter part of this week, telling you about them – everything, you know, is packed up. Mrs. Reeve will be returning to Yorkville in a few days, and if I do I will have her with me. I dislike journeying alone very much.

I send you a specimen of our of the Peterboro’ Newspapers. I must now close, with kind wishes to you and your sister.

I will be glad to hear from you soon.

I remain

Yours Affectionately,

Thomas W. Poole.

H.B. Alley Esq.


Letter #5. 21 Sept [1854], 2 pages written from Norwood, impressions of the village, medical state of the community.

My Dear Friend,

Your letter was duly received some time ago, and I should have answered it sooner, only that I have not had much of interest to write about, and being pretty busy I procrastinated. I have enjoyed very good health since I came here and I have also been kept tolerably busy, enough so to keep me from being lonesome or despondent. It always requires some time for one to get known; and considering that I have no grey hairs to recommend me and that I am commencing in a new field, I have been doing very well. I am pretty comfortable here where I stop, and altogether I like the place and the people quite as well as I could expect. The man who fell from a building and was nearly killed has recovered finely and is now able to walk about. My case of dropsy which was long ago given up as hopeless, I have had to tap twice, and removed a large quantity of fluid each time. She is rather improving this last week or so, but I scarcely dare to hope for her recovery. There is a good deal of ague in some places here, several cases of which I have been called to and have cured.

I took a ride to Peterboro’ the Sunday before last in the afternoon, and got there in 3 hours after starting. Mrs. Poole is getting round rather slowly after her confinement, of which I suppose you heard. The newcomer is a daughter. Dr. Lavell attends her. I was there for Church on Sunday evening, and returned here on Monday morning. Some of the roads are pretty rough, but I enjoy riding very well, and even prefer it to a buggy. I will be glad to hear from you soon again. How are you getting along with the bones? If you are in company with Medical students with them, they will steal them away from you if they get a chance. The Winter Session of the School will soon be opening.

If you think of attending, you are perfectly welcome to the bones, and if you wish I may have a chance of sending you others before winter. I am going to spend some of my spare time in putting my skeleton together and may sometimes want the book.

The Rev. Mr. Hilton of the Church of England, here, is going to Toronto next week. Perhaps I may send a few lines to you with him, – unless you really do not care about the book you need not send it by him, as I may have another chance of a person going in a few weeks.

There seems to be a good opening for a milliner here, but I fear you would not find anything to suit you; and I am sure your sister would not like the place much. The Methodists are building a new frame church, a tolerably good one for the place, and about as large as the old one at Yorkville.

Give my kind regards to all the good folks.

Please write soon and tell me all the news.

Yours Affectionately,

T.W. Poole

Letter #6. 18 Oct [1854], 4 pages, written from Norwood, advice re starting a dry goods business.

Norwood. Oct. 18, 1854.

Dear Friend,

I received your letter a few days ago, and would have written to you sooner but circumstances prevented my so doing. I think if I were in your circumstances I would hardly undergo the necessary labor and expense of studying medicine, when you will always be able to make as good and perhaps a better living at dry goods. You will find it difficult to attend the Anatomy lectures while engaged in the shop, and they will be of little real benefit to you unless you could spend an hour or two daily in the dissecting room to examine and see things for yourself. You have a good opportunity of getting a start in business, soon, and this is a great advantage. A good dry goods business is more profitable and more pleasant than the irregular kind of life of a physician. There are some young men here in Norwood doing well at dry goods, who after selling on commission are now able to carry on business for themselves. In studying medicine, you will have a great deal of mental labor and expense, with probably no better livelihood than you can easily make at dry goods.

Two Milliners, Sisters, have come to Norwood, and have commenced the business in the house of their brother who lives here. I could not advice you to think of a boarding house in this place, nor do I know of anything else you could engage in here. I can only content myself here while I am making money, since I have been here, not quite two months, I have booked upwards of  £35, nearly all good debts. At present there does not seem to be a great deal of sickness in this neighborhood.

I have not heard from Peterboro’ for more than a week. I suppose Mrs. Reeve’s folks will be moving down by this time. I continue to enjoy good health. If you know anything about the number of students attending school, please inform me.

How does the New Yorkville church seem to do. Who plays the organ, now since Robinson sold it to the Trustees? Do you know anything about Benjamin [Nankeville].

As it is mail time I must close for the present. Hoping to hear from you again when convenient. Give my kind regards to your sister the “Carriage folks” etc.

I remain, Yours affectionately,

Thomas W. Poole.

H.B.B. Alley Esq. etc.

Letter #7. 8 Aug 1854, 4 pages, local news, lack of feminine companionship, social situation, possibility of friend becoming a doctor and practising in Norwood.

Peterboro’, Tuesday Aug. 8th 1854.

Dear Friend,

I arrived here safely 24 hours after leaving Toronto, and found all the folks all well, and very comfortable. I had a pleasant trip – from Cobourg I came by railroad to Rice Lake, and then the remainder of the way on a small steamboat. Peterboro’ is a pretty good place, for an inland, country town. Our church is a neat and commodious one, they have a choir and a melodeon to lead the singing. I was out with my brother’s folks last night to a social party at Mr— the Registrar for this county, who has several offices in the church, – I was also out to tea one evening last week. So you see I am putting in the time pretty well. There are not pretty girls here that I can see, at least none that suit my taste. There is a thriving village called Norwood, about 25 miles east of this place, where I am informed they are anxious to get a physician. The one they have is too rough, and is engaged in the lumber business, and seems inclined to give up his practice. There is a good Grammar School in the village. The teacher and his wife were in Peterboro, on Saturday, and hearing of me from some of the folks, they called here and seemed anxious I would go there among them, and seemed disposed to be very friendly. They said if I want to go housekeeping they would secure a nice house for me, and if not they would find me a suitable place to board.

I have also seen the Methodist Minister from there, and he thinks it a very good opening. I am going to see the place tomorrow, I expect, and from all I have heard I think I will go there for a year or two at least, until I see something better. I have been thinking it would be well for me to return to Toronto for my things and get some Medicines and other articles I will want, but travelling is not quite safe on those boats there is so much sickness, and it is expensive, and I can get mostly what I want here nearly as well as in Toronto, perhaps I had better not go for a month or two yet. If I go to Toronto for these things I will do so the beginning of next week, if I do not go perhaps I will trouble you to start my trunks on the boat for me addressed to this place, however I will write to you again on this subject. I have been thinking if I should settle in Norwood, perhaps you and your sister would find it to your advantage to live and carry on business of some kind in a thriving country village, for instance, you could live a great deal cheaper, and you could soon acquire a little property of your own which it is not easy to do in a place like Toronto, and then I would be glad to have an old friend near me, and if you thought of studying medicine, I would be happy to do all in my power to assist you, and if you studied well for a year and a half or so, as I know you would, you would be prepared for spending a session at a medical school to advantage and would then be able to obtain your license. I merely mention it, for your consideration, I have not yet seen Norwood, but I am told it is a thriving business place. The people here are chiefly from the old country – many of them from Ireland – there are very few Americans. I have met here with an old friend and schoolfellow, he has horses, and is lending me one to go to Norwood tomorrow.

I will be glad to hear from you as soon as convenient. We are all quite well. My brother and his wife send their kindest regards to you.

Letter #8. 24 Aug 1854, 4 pages, written from Norwood, local news, rental accommodations, religious nature of the population.

Norwood, Aug. 24th, 1854.

Dear Friend.

I arrived safely in Peterboro’ on Friday at noon, and that afternoon and Saturday I devoted myself to seeing several horses that I heard were for sale within a few miles. I succeeded in finding one to suit me, a neat black mare, possessing all the sprightliness and vivacity of youth, with the training and discipline of maturer years. I came down here on Monday afternoon and have found a tolerably comfortable place to board at $2 1/2 per week. I have 2 rooms, a bed room, and another for my medicines etc., and the sole use of a good stable on the premises. I got part of my things by way of Crook’s Rapids yesterday, and the remainder this morning, so that you see I am only commencing operations. I have 4 patients today, 3 in the village, and one out four miles in the country, a young women who has dropsy, and has been considered a hopeless case, and given up by 3 or 4 physicians. I was sent for to see if I could do anything for her, and I have some faint hopes of her recovery. I felt lonesome here the first day and night but since then, I have been busy getting my things arranged, and looking after those patients so that I have not been dull or lonesome. If they keep me pretty busy, and treat me tolerably well, I will be satisfied and contented.

Yesterday and today up to 4 o’clock this afternoon (at which time I write) I have earned 5 dollars. This is not so bad as a commencement, and although money will not come in just at once, while one is attending them, I meant to be pretty sharp in collecting my debts.

Business is rather dull in the stores here now, during harvest, and there does not appear to be room for any more shops than those at present establishment. I have been so busy with my own little fixings that I have not yet enquired respecting an opening for you, but I am afraid one will not be found in a small place like this to suit you. I think you could get a situation in one of the stores, but it would take too much of your time and give you too small a salary in proportion. However I will make enquiries. If you could turn Methodist Minister and get the conference to send you here next year you could then manage. A good boarding house is wanted here worse than anything, and if well conducted I have no doubt it would pay well. There are a number of clerks and young men as well as myself who board out, and the only good place is kept by an old couple, who have things in tolerable order, but the old womea will soon be getting too old and feeble to look after it. I do not know whether such a line of business would suit you or not, but I have heard several persons express their wish for a good boarding house and the necessity for one in the village.

There are two small churches here, but they are neat ones for the place; the Methodists have the majority in the village and they are building a church and expect to have it finished this fall. Theirs will be the third, and the Church of England people have part of the walls of a small brick one built, but are scarce of funds to complete it. I was invited to a small party in Peterboro’ on Monday evening, but I came away after dinner and gave them the slip. Several hearts there seemed likely to be rather impressible, but I saw no chance of their impressing mine. I fear I am destined to be an old bachelor. Dear Alley if you can find a young lady willing to share the pleasures and sorrows of life’s journey with me just send me a telegraph, and see if we don’t soon make it up. The women here tell me that I must get married, firstly, because it will prevent me from being lonely, and I will be able to live more contently with them, and secondly, because then they will not feel so shy in employing me, and I will make more money, and thirdly because the expense of living will be very little increased. These are good reasons, but I am not at present prepared for complying with them.

The horse (or mare) I have is a very nice beast to ride, and I think I will do without a buggy this fall, I rode 11 miles yesterday without any inconvenience. I am to get half a ton of hay and some oats today for her.

The weather is fine, and somewhat warm, I will be glad to hear from you soon. Give my kind regards to all the special folks. We have a mail here from the West, and another from the East every second day.

I must close as other duties demand attention.

I remain, Yours Affectionately,

Thomas W. Poole.

H.B.B. Alley Esq.

Letter #9. 25 Nov 1854, 6 pages, written from Norwood, family matters, bill collecting at harvest, thoughts of moving to Peterborough.

Norwood. Nov 25th 1854.

My Dear Friend.

I received your letter of the 7th inst. and I am glad to hear that you are well, and that you have a good prospect of getting into business before long. Although you may prefer medicine at present, I think the other will suit you better, as you have considerable experience in it which will be greatly in your favour. Still, if at any time you wish to go on with the study of medicine, I will do everything in my power to help you along. I am enjoying good health, and have nearly as much business as I can conveniently attend to, and although not securing “great riches” I believe I am getting “a good name”, which Salomon says is preferable. I am earning at the rate of about £200 per year, but as yet I have got in very little and not more than has supplied my immediate wants. In January next I will have a good deal to collect, and will then I trust have a fair start made. I confidently expected to have got in a considerable sum this month but as the farmers have not yet begun to dispose of their produce I found it difficult to do so. If you should need a little money I will be able to get some any time after this by means of a little dunning. If not I think I will let them alone til the 1st of January. The roads here are pretty bad now but we are hoping for frost and snow. I have bespoke a cutter, buffalo skins etc., and am feeling sorry I have no one to share the pleasure of them with me during some of my winter rides. I was in Peterboro about 2 weeks ago and found my brother’s folks all well, and seemingly prosperous in church matters. It was rumoured that Dr. Lavell was not doing very well, and I think there will soon be a good opening for a physician there. The folks where I lodge talk of moving from here in the spring, so that I will have to look about for another place. It is uncomfortable and expensive to be living thus in another family, and I am beginning to wish for a home of my own or at least some improvement upon my present domestic conditions. I am not entirely reconciled to settling down here, although I am sure I can make a good living here, and perhaps with that I ought to be content. I have had a few difficult cases, but they have terminated well, and several of them feel grateful to me for “saving their lives” as they term it. I have not lost one yet, but a case of consumption and one of dropsy both far gone before I saw them, will soon be dropping off. I have not heard from or written to B. [Nankeville] for a long time. I hope he is getting along a little steadier then formerly. I will be glad to hear from you as often as convenient. Kind regards to your sister and yourself. I think I have nothing else worth adding and will close for the present.

Remaining Yours Affectionately,

Thomas W. Poole

Letter #10. 22 Jan 1855, 2 pages written from Norwood, discussing new quarters, occurrences of smallpox, missionary meetings.

Norwood. Jan. 22nd ’55

My Dear Friend,

Among several unanswered letters I find your last, and must hasten to perform the pleasing task of replying to it. I suppose it is little use for me to apologize for not writing sooner, but the truth is I have been quite busy; and not very comfortably situated for keeping up correspondence. My little office room was too small, and I have engaged the front part of a small frame house to receive patients in and to hold my bottles, drugs, writing material etc. I have just got moved into my new quarters today, and with my increased accommodation I will be able to accomplish more both for myself and others.

I am quite well, and as I said, pretty busy. Norwood although a somewhat backward place is not a bad place for a good physician. People are now somewhat alarmed about the small pox which is said to be at Belleville and in some parts of Prince Edward County. A young man died of it within 6 miles of this place last week, so that nearly all are anxious to be vaccinated. This of course is making a little work for me.

I returned from Peterboro’ yesterday, having gone there the previous evening. I found my brother’s folks all well, and spent a few minutes with Dr. Lavell, and found Mr. Reeve’s family also well, and seemingly enjoying Peterboro’ pretty well. We have had two small snow storms, each of about a day’s duration, and have now plenty of snow, and will have fine roads as soon as the last fall gets beaten down. It is only now that the farmers here are beginning to dispose of their produce, so that cash has come in to me rather tardily. In all, I have collected £34, and I have about £50 still due to me. I have charged moderately, sometimes perhaps too much so, but this I think is doing very well for the first 5 months of practice. I have of course a good deal of unavoidable expense but not near as much so as if I were living in Toronto or even in a town. My mare pleases me well and is quite sprightly and smart and I have a nice comfortable cutter and buffalo skins, and turn out in pretty good style. The idea seems to have got abroad respecting me that I am an honest and pretty skilful physician, at least so some of your country men (who have probably been near the Blarney stone) tell me.

We had a nice missionary meeting here, good attendance, and good speeches. I am sorry the people of Yorkville do not agree better on church affairs. I suppose you go up there sometimes to meeting. It was reported here that Miss Robinson was married, but it turns out to be untrue. I strongly suspect that you are looking after Miss Jane. If so “Go it while you are young,” – but of course, you will deny it. I hope you will not follow my example in delaying writing so long. I expect a person will soon be going from here to Toronto, and if so I will send you a few lines by him. I hope to hear of your success and prosperity in whatever situation you may feel it your duty to place yourself. Kind regards to your sister and yourself.

I remain,

Yours Affectionately,

Thomas W. Poole

Letter #11. 21 Feb 1855, 4 pages, written from Norwood, personal health, new housekeeper, completion of Methodist church, females, the letter is incomplete.

Norwood. Feb. 21st ’55

My Dear Friend,

I have just returned from the post office with your interesting letter, and as I am apt sometimes to put off a duty too long, I set at once about the pleasing task of replying to it. I am well and continue tolerably busy. I think, since I wrote to you I have changed my quarters, and I now have my “office” in a separate small frame building and I eat and sleep at the Rev. Mr. Carr’s, our minister here. I am much more comfortable since this change has been effected, than formerly. There is a small brick house, now being finished situated on the side of the hill partly overlooking the village. This I think of renting in the spring, and of getting a housekeeper to look after my wants for I see no chance of getting a wife by that time.

Perhaps I may get my sister to come and superintend my domestic affairs for me. At all events I do not care much about boarding out in this way much longer. It is expensive, inconvenient and less comfortable than a little home of one’s own.

The Methodists here have just got their new church completed. It is a good, neat one for this place, fitted up with pews, having two aisles as in the Adelaide St. church. It is to be opened for Divine Service next Sunday. Rev. Mr. Case from Alnwick is to preach in the morning, some stranger at 2 o’clock, and my brother from Peterboro’ in the evening. Our quarterly meeting comes off the Sabbath after, and early in the week following we are to have a tea meeting in aid of the funds. So you see, we will have busy times and heavy demands upon the purse strings.

Money seems very scarce here and comes in very slowly, and although prices are high the times are dull. We have now good sleighing and plenty of snow. It is two weeks since I was up to Peterboro, the folks were then all well and enjoying themselves as well as usual. I made but a very short stay as my time is limited. I did not write any valentines this year, although I believe I received a couple. We have a few pretty girls about here but they are uneducated, simpleminded creatures. I have not showed any attentions to any of them. I can hardly tell you how Dr. Lavell is getting on in Peterboro’. I am so seldom there, but I suspect he is doing pretty well. If I can get in a considerable portion of what is owing to me, so as to enable me to pay my debts, it is probable I will visit Toronto in the spring. I would like if possible to be able in a couple of years to visit London or Philadelphia, and see a little practice in some of those places. On this account I am hesitating about the prosperity of settling down permanently or encumbering myself with a wife, although I would get more practice if I were settled thus.

If I can go housekeeping in the spring and you are then anxious to pursue the study of medicine, I would be glad to have you come and stay with me and I would assist you all I can. I am always happy when up to the ears, in bones and muscles etc. etc. If I go to Toronto I intend to bring down with me a small “subject” to dissect here, in order to preserve anatomical specimens for my own gratification. After you got the “bones” well you could pursue the study of muscles, etc. etc., from the subject and thus have much advantage as in the Dissecting Room in Toronto. Still I think you are “cut out” more for a merchant than a doctor.

Letter # 12. 31 March 1855, 4 pages, written from Norwood, prospects of moving to Millbrook, weather, medical supplies (bones).

Norwood. Saturday March 31st ’55.

Dear Friend.

Enclosed I [remit] you five pounds, which I hope will safely reach you. I would have been glad to have been able to send it you long ago, and would have done so if I could sooner get in what is owing to me, however I hope it is “better late than never.”

I am quite well and doing well. Some inducements were offered to me lately to go and reside in Millbrook in the township of Cavan, 18 miles back of Port Hope, and I had been thinking seriously of doing so, but my prospects for the future are encouraging enough to make one stay here some time longer.

We had plenty of snow this spring and it had tarried long with us, but the hot sun is now melting it away very fast. I was to Peterboro’ the night before last and found all the folks well there and seemingly doing well. I think I wrote to you some time ago and have not yet heard from you. I hope you and your sister are well and doing well. I will be glad of a few lines from you when you receive this.

Mr. [Danut], our Grammar School teacher has gone to Toronto and will remain a few days. I did not tell him to call on you for the book and bones, but I think I will write him to that effect and if you are not using them you might send them by him. Please wrap up the bones well or they may make him nervous.

I had some thoughts of going to Toronto myself this spring for some things I want in the medical line, and will probably go either there or to Rochester.

Mr. John Reeve is home, and his folks are all well.

I am anxious to know how you are shaping your course for the future, and especially what progress you are making in securing the affection of the ladies. This you know is an important part of the duties of life and ought not to be overlooked amid the pressure of other matters. I think I must begin to devote more attention to it than formerly.

I have heard that Miss Robinson is married, and that Miss Carrie Wood is no more. I suppose the “carriage” still stops occasionally in front of your shop. Please give the folks my kind regards should you see them. I am writing this so badly that I am afraid you will not be able to read it, but if I do not scribble if off this way perhaps I would not get it written at all.

Please accept my thanks for your kindness in accommodating me with the enclosed.

Kind regards to yourself and sister.

How is B. [Nankeville] doing, do you know?

Good bye.

Yours Affectionately,

Thomas W. Poole.

Mr. H.B.B. Alley

Letter #13. 21-25 June 1855, 4 pages, written from Norwood, poor mail service, business flourishing, no cash in the economy.

Norwood, Thursday evening

June 12th, ’55

My Dear Friend,

I received your letter today and hasten at once to reply. I am sure you must be mistaken about the date of my last letter being Aug 31st, as I certainly wrote to you about the 1st of Jan., and again about the 1st of April, and I think also between these times. It may be that some of our letters go astray, for the last time I wrote was the 2nd letter I sent, without having heard from you.

However, I am glad to know you are well, and comfortably situated, and I am happy to be able to inform you that I also enjoy these blessings. My coadjutor Dr. Willson, having left here a few weeks ago, for parts unknown; and there being a good deal of sickness around, I am kept quite busy.

It is an exceedingly pleasant thing to be summoned from a comfortable bed and a pleasant sleep to trudge away in the damp night air to minister to some one in distress, and then wait a twelvemonth for your pay, which is doled out to you after repeated dunnings, and in some instances not at all. I think you would find this kind of exercise quite as unpleasant as anything in the dry goods line. However, there are some things unpleasant in every calling, and on the whole I am fond of mine, and would not wish to change it. I sometimes find it lonesome here, as you might expect, for in a little country village one has not much to fall back upon for agreeable recreation. It is only during my leisure moments that I feel thus, and I generally manage to keep myself busy at something. I have bought a half acre lot, and rented the half acre beside it, on which stands a small brick house, now being finished.

In this little acre farm I have sowed oats and potatoes, and expect a tolerable crop of both. People here say I am to be married soon, and know a great deal more about it than I do myself, but I assure you I have not thoughts of doing anything so foolish.

Monday Afternoon, June 25th

I was called away, and being busy I did not get my letter finished on Thursday, and now I resume. I have just received the book and bones which my brother brought and forwarded to me here. The book I have hailed as an old familiar fiend, and would not exchange it for a new one of the same kind.

I would be glad to have someone near me or with me here who would be engaged in the study of medicine – as while affording him any information in my power I would be reviewing and confirming myself.

Could you not spare a few days in July or August, and take a trip down here. You could come on the boat to Cobourg, on the cars from there to Keene, and then the remainder of the way (18 miles) in the stage. It would do you good, and be a change from the dull monotony of city life. You could go back by way of Peterboro’ and would thus have an opportunity of seeing more of the country.

I cannot get up to Peteboro’ often now as I am so busy, it does not do for me to be away. A physician is more a slave than a man of any other profession. His time is never his own, and he knows not the minute he may be wanted. Perhaps when he is most anxious for rest or recreation, a call comes, and he feels it his duty to obey. Men in other callings in life have a certain number of hours to put in, after which they are their own masters and can go and do what they like but the doctor must “be always ready”.

I expected to have gone to Toronto ere this, but I am left alone here and am so busy almost day and night that I do not see how or when I am to get away. The last few weeks I am booking 4 or 5 dollars a day generally. There is but little cash stirring here during the summer months, but it will have to begin to come in by and by. I hope to hear from you occasionally, as circumstances permit. I hope you will be able to read this.

Kind regards to yourself and your sister. Kind regards to Miss Robinson if you see her.

Yours Affectionately,

Thomas W. Poole.

Letter #14. 3 Aug 1855, 4 pages, written from Norwood, touting Norwood as a place for Alley to study medicine, roads and transportation, medical information.

Norwood, Aug. 3rd, ’55

Dear Alley,

Your letter duly arrived. I am very busy, and cannot write much. Yesterday I travelled about 30 miles and 40 the day before.

We have nearly every variety of sickness here to deal with. Within a month I have had 3 broken bones to look after, two arms and a leg. I am anxious to have some person with me engaged in the study of medicine, and will be glad if you can make arrangements to come, if not I must try and get someone else. I am glad that you are coming to see the place, at any rate, and will be glad how soon you can come, as I would like to know your decision so that I could be looking out for some one else if necessary. You will probably find this a lonesome backward place, as I do, but then you could have here every facility for acquiring a knowledge of medicine.

There is no stage from Keene to this place as it was expected there would be. The cars will bring you within 4 miles of Keene, and then you will have to come on, the best way you can. There is a livery stable keeper there whose name is Drummond, who often drives in passengers, – If you would call on Dr. McCrea, in Keene, it is likely he could put you in a way of getting here. Do not tell him or anyone your object in coming. You can put it on the score of paying me a visit.

The weather is very hot and showery. I find myself much more comfortable now than formerly, although we have yet considerable fixing to do.

If you were sure of when you would get to Keene I could meet you there with the buggy as the road is tolerably good, and the distance 10 miles.

I have not been to Peterboro’ for some time, as I cannot get time to go.

I cannot say a great deal in a flattering way about this place or the people, or the young ladies, but if you are determined to engage in the study of medicine I will endeavour to afford you every practical facility in my power and to communicate to you all the information possible.

You will require a good deal of information regarding drugs before you could engage in the business with safety. I am now going 8 miles to see a sick women and must close, hoping to see or hear from you soon.

Yours faithfully,

Thomas W. Poole.

Letter #15. 10 Nov 1855, 3 pages, written from Norwood, personal news, request for books.

Norwood. Saturday Nov. 10th, ’55.

Dear Friend,

Your letter was duly received a few days ago, and I hasten to reply. We are all well here and going on as usual. I was to Peterboro’ once since you were here. My sister spent last Sabbath there, and returned on Monday. She informed me that Miss Robinson and her pa were there, and that the organ was in course of erection. Of course she must go up and hear it, by and by. I have very little news worth mentioning. This is our quarterly meeting Saturday and Sabbath here. I enclose to you a dollar bill, and you will greatly oblige me by purchasing at some of the book stores and sending to me by mail the “Westminster Review” for July last, and a Lecture by Dr. Lillie, entitled “Homeopathy versus Allopathy”.

The Review you will most likely to get at Maclear’s, and Lillie’s lecture at Fletcher’s on Yonge St., where it was published. You must mail them separately, and just as you would a newspaper, by wrapping a piece of paper round the middle and putting a couple of wafers to hold it, leaving the ends uncovered, as they law requires.

If you have anything left after buying them you can prepay them. If they cost more than this I will send you the balance. I would also like a copy of the “Jubilee Sermon” preached by the Rev. Mr. Case at the last conference, which will be found at the book room.

I fear I am giving you a good deal of trouble but I will be much obliged if you will send these at your earliest convenience. As it is near mail time I must close. My sister sends her kind regards to you. I hope you will soon have better news from the old country. Good bye.

Yours Affectionately,

T.W. Poole.

Letter #16. Tuesday 2 July [1856], 2 pages, written from Norwood, postal problems, family news, “quack” doctor.

Tuesday July 2, 1856.

Dear Friend,

This letter of mine has been very unfortunate in not yet reaching the post office. How it could so have happened I cannot well tell, but I hope you will pardon this oversight of mine. I have been quite busy, and when at times overworked feeling rather dull. I was to Peterboro’ on Friday last, and bought a nice buggy and am now making active preparation for commencing housekeeping by means of my sister who is now in Peterboro’. We will have a little brick house pleasantly situated, and expect to get into it this week of next. Can you not take a trip down this way and spend a day or two here, and if you are desirous of studying medicine, and make arrangements to say here I will do everything in my power to assist you. I am expecting a visit from a quack Dr. from Madoc, who is coming over to me occasionally to be “ground,” and who is going to attend the medical school next winter. I can furnish you with bones, and we will soon find a “subject” and I would assist you in dissecting it. In a short time you could learn to pull teeth, and if you had any capital to invest, I think a drug store on a small scale would pay here. In 2 or 3 months you could become acquainted with the drugs, and then make a little shop pay you while attending to your studies. Please write immediately, and try and come down and see us at any rate and we will talk the matter over.

Yours in haste.

Letter #17. 21 Aug 1856, 4 pages, written from Norwood, news of his housekeeper, the first circus, family matters.

Norwood. Aug. 21st, 1856.

Dear Alley,

It is long since I wrote to you, having so little worth writing about, or that you would likely to be interested in. I am pretty well. My sister is gone to Peteboro’ for a few days, – a little girl we have keeping house for me. I was in town a couple of hours last week. My brothers’ folks were well. The Jones’s were there on a visit, and seemed to be enjoying it pretty well. A spruce widower in comfortable circumstances was paying them very marked attentions, with what results I am unable to say. I heard since from my brother, and he informed me they had gone to Belleville to visit a while. There is not much special going on in Peterboro’. Dr. Lavell talked of moving to London C.W. but I believe has concluded to remain. There is not a great deal of sickness here this summer and I am just comfortably busy.

How do you get along? I will be glad to hear from you as soon as circumstances permit. I suppose you see the “Carriage folks” frequently. I heard that Miss Robinson was going to be married soon, probably you may know something about it. Or it may be merely an idle rumour. How do you come on yourself in those tender matters? As for me I think I am a fair way to remain a bachelor, unless something unusual comes to pass. Where is Ben [Nankeville] now and do you know how he is doing?

I suppose you have given up all notion of studying the bones and are becoming reconciled to dry goods.

We have had a very dry summer, but a good deal of rain in the last 3 days.

I would like if you were here for a few days now, we would go fishing and shooting and driving round. There is to be a Circus in here in a couple of weeks for the first time.

Please give my kind regards to you sister, and accept the same yourself and believe me,

Yours Affectionately,

Thomas W. Poole.

Letter #18. 4 Dec 1856, 6 pages, with envelope and cover, romance, Alley’s future, social life, weather, medical information.

Norwood. Wednesday Dec. 4th, ’56.

Dear Alley,

Your letter was duly received a few days ago; and I now hasten to write a few lines in reply. I should have done so sooner, but I have been busy, and besides have very little worth communicating or that is likely to interest you. We are well here, my sister and myself, and living along as usual. The season has been a pretty healthy one, and I have not been over worked. At present I have two broken bones in charge. One of the femur near the middle of the shaft, the other of the tibia & fibula. Both are boys, and both are likely to do well. The latter being a compound fracture, has given me more trouble than usual, but I expect favorable results.

You will find these kind of cases difficult and trying. For although simple enough looking in theory and in the book it is very different in actual practice and then the responsibility one feels, a crooked bone being a serious deformity to the patient, and damaging to the reputation of the physician. In the country too one has not the facilities for conducting these cases that there is in hospital practice. You will find, (at least I have) that practical knowledge is much more advantageous than mere theoretical. However necessary and indispensable looks may be, there is no look like the “look of nature” and nothing that will aid you so much hereafter as seeing and observing the actual management and treatment of cases for yourself. I feel greatly indebted to the hospital for what I learned, and would strongly recommend you to attend it all you can.

In reference to your studies, I think I would not attempt to take out license for each branch separately, as you hint in your letter, but I would master one subject at a time and then take up another. And when you have got through all take out license for all together. The school may probably advise you to pursue the study of the different branches at the same time, because they want you to help to support all the professors, and you may be obliged to take out all the tickets. Still I am satisfied that the other course is best. I have no doubt but you will succeed, if you persevere.

In reference to the other matters mentioned in your letter, I cannot perhaps plead entirely “not guilty” to the tender passion, but I believe time will show you that you are not looking in the right direction in my case. It is true I stayed at Robinson’s longer than I might have done, but Miss R. and I were never destined for each other.

I wish I could see you, and have a longer chat about such matters than the limits of a letter allows. I feel the need of some one with whom to counsel and to whom I could unbosom myself.

We have had a second fall of snow today, which will make tolerable sleighing.

I have not been to Peterboro’ since my return, nor have I heard from them. I expect to go in a few days, now that I can slip along in the cutter.

I have had several sleigh-rides already, and one nice upset. My little poney stands it well, and jogs round with me bravely. I sometimes think I am beginning to prefer living in the country to the town. We have a debating school here now; and a good deal of general improvement going on.

It is getting dark and tea is getting ready, so that I must hasten to conclude. Please give my kind regards to your sister and accept yourself my warm wishes for your success and prosperity.

I remain, Yours faithfully,

Thomas W. Poole.

Thursday Morning,

A fine bright day after the storm of yesterday. Sleighing is middling good, although a little rough in places.

I will always be glad to hear from you, and to know any changes that may occur among our acquaintances there.


Letter #19. 2 Feb 1857, 4 pages, written from Norwood, the schoolteacher’s romantic potential, patients, weather.

Norwood. Monday Feb. 2nd, 1857

Dear Alley,

Your kind note has just been received, and I am glad to learn that you are well.

We are all well, and living on much as usual. There is not much sickness in this section of the country, and I find the midwifery the best of the business.

I was detained nearly all day today at a case in Belmont, about 6 miles from here. All came off well. I have been very fortunate in this branch of business, and I may say I am in favor among the old women, and to secure their favor and confidence you know is more than half the battle. I have occasionally met with difficult cases, such as [flooding] or those in which a recourse to instruments is necessary. I have twice performed craniotomy, and several times used the forceps. You will find these cases exceptionally trying and sufficient to require all your coolness and fortitude.

We have a very cold severe winter here, but I have been only a few times turned out at nights.

Our Grammar School teachers have left, and we have got a new supply – A Mr. Jones from Toronto is principal. He has but one arm, wears a moustache. The French teacher is a Miss Ford from Peterboro’, and she boards with us. I have a prejudice against school mistresses, and consequently have not the slightest intention of falling in love, as you might suppose I would be likely to do. I am not sure that my affections are at my own disposal at any rate; but this is a subject I am not at liberty at present to enter upon. There is another young (American) lady now here on a winter visit to Mrs. Foley, of amicable disposition, but rather plain in features: but neither is she “the rose for me.” These however form a considerable addition to the female society of the place. There are some little bits of romance, happening occasionally, as well as every where else, but as you do not know the parties it would be useless for me to mention about them.

I do not feel any particular interest in the Robinson’s; but you might inform me (if you happen to know) who Miss R’s favorite is. I fancied it might be young Rosebrough or your young preacher, but I might be mistaken.

Miss R once wrote me some very affectionate letter; but I found she was playing the same game with somebody else; and I informed her she might bestow her devotion entirely to him whoever he might be. This is of course between ourselves.

My brother has been ill for some weeks of a sort of Bronchitis, or as it is called “Clergyman’s sore throat.” He was getting better last time I saw him. I do not go to Peterboro’ often, as it is a loss to be to be away much from home.

We will be glad to see you next summer. I expect to have some picnic parties here, and also sailing and fishing excursions. When you come, you must calculate to stay 4 or 5 days.

I send you the last Review. I get the Toronto Globe regularly. With kindest regards to yourself and sister.

I close remaining yours truly,

Thomas W. Poole.

Letter #20. 13 March 1857, 2 pages, written from Norwood, dissertation on women, marital advice for Alley, church teas.

Norwood. March 13th, 1857.

Dear Friend,

You letter was duly received, and I was glad to learn that you were well. I have nothing very special to mention except that we are both well, and living along as usual. I have now another broken leg (Tibia and Fibula) in hand which is doing first rate. We have had very little sleighing since the 1st of February and today the weather is almost too fine for the season of the year.

The “American Lady” has returned a week ago, to her own home, near Watertown, New York. You say you are “quite clear of the Ladies,” then you are a fortunate fellow, and yet you are an unfortunate fellow too, and also an unhappy one.

The Ladies (God bless them) are a sort of necessary evil. They are like a sharp edged tool. Very apt to cut one in handling them, yet all the better for that same sharpness. I believe that true women are scarce and when found, of inestimable value: and he who possesses the love and confidence of such a one is indeed happy, whatever be his circumstances in life.

The truth that “it is not good for man to be alone” is founded in nature as well as revelation, and he never can be truly happy who has not some dear kindred heart to beat responsive to his own. So, if you are really “quite clear of ladies,” which I very much doubt; I trust for your own sake you will not long remain so. Get involved with some nice girl just as soon as you can. It will be to you a star to guide you in dark moments of gloom or despondency. The great difficulty with me has been to find a person as intellectual and accomplished as I would wish who possessed a moderate share of health and physical vigor.

Most of our fashionable young ladies are utterly incapable (from debility and other causes) of making good wives and mothers. Who wants to marry a perpetual invalid however refined or accomplished? There is no fear of “that affair of mine” coming off “til summer” – nor probably then, so that you will have plenty of time to prepare for it. We are to have a Tea-meeting on Monday next in the church. My brother is expected down to it – I have not been to Peterboro’ since I wrote. I suppose you are very busy – don’t study too hard. Do you suppose I could get a small subject in any way if I went to Toronto for it? It is not easy getting them in the country and I want to dissect some. I am learning some French during my leisure time. I get a French newspaper.

Kind regards to your sister.

Yours truly (in haste),

Thomas W. Poole

Letter #21. 9 Dec 1857, 2 pages, written from Norwood, news of his marriage, and assessment of his wife, boarders in their home, general election mentioned in passing.

Norwood. Wednesday Dec. 9th 1857.

Dear Friend.

I would have written to you long ago, but I did not know where you were and did not know whether to address to you in Toronto or London. This may not be quite a sufficient apology. Well then I have been very busy. I have been building a house, and in the bustle of completing and coming into it have lost sight of many other little matters which would otherwise have met with attention. It is quite convenient to our former residence, and we find it much more comfortable. It seems you have not learned that I have been spliced. I thought you might have learned indirectly. Well then one fine day in July last myself and a young lady from these parts found our way to Cobourg and were married by my Brother, who you know lives there this year, and is traveling agent for Victoria College. My sister is there with Mrs. Poole at present, who is a good deal alone. I had a letter from her a couple of days ago. She and they were quite well and very comfortably settled. I get along here pretty well, being tolerably busy professionally and have not cause of complaint.

Mrs. Poole is all that I expected her to be and makes me a very good wife indeed and a true helpmate. We have had a young lady boarding with us all the year, who teaches the female department in the school. We have also a young man with us for a few weeks who is aspiring to the Ministry, and is going to school here at present.

Times you know are seldom very exiting in a country village, so we lead a quiet kind of life. The general election and other township elections and meetings are at present making considerable stir, and will for a month or two to come. I thought you would probably be attending the Toronto School of Medicine this winter. What are you doing? You would not like teaching a school in the country or you could get a good salary and have a great deal of time for study.

I could easily get you such a situation near here and would be delighted to assist you in your studies if you thought of such a plan. The salary would range from £50 – £80, and you would have every other Saturday besides the usual holidays, amounting to nearly 2 months in the year and only 6 hours duty each day. Think of this and let me now your prospects in your next. As I have often said I would be glad to be helping somebody, as it would keep things fresher in my own mind.

I must now close for the present. Wishing you all prosperity.

And believe me, Yours Truly,

Thomas W. Poole.

Letter #22. 5 Sept 1864, 3 pages, written from Norwood, to Alley who is now in London, personal matters, reasons for remaining in the area.

Norwood. Sept. 5th 1864.

Dear Alley,

I had quite lost track of you and for a portion of the time since, in some curious way, I could not recall your name. It seemed to have passed out of my memory although I remembered yourself very well. I received the newspaper you sent, which also informed me of the great affliction you have sustained. How better we can do to mitigate the grief of our dearest friends under such bereavements. But you have my sympathy and condolences. Since you were here I have been doing tolerably well. For 6 years or so I have been living in a good sized house I built, have had good practice and done tolerably fairly. Of course I am married several years; but have no family. I fear you were not very favorably impressed by the appearance of this section of the country when you were here and indeed it is not one of the best. I have had 3 or 4 municipal offices, clerk, treasurer etc. which have assisted me materially or I should not have stayed here so long.

I am now about to remove into Peteboro’. Have leased a house and will be there in 3 weeks at farthest. Should you ever come that way I will be greatly pleased to see you. So it seems you did not study medicine after all. I often looked out for your name as among the published Licentiates and could not tell what had become of you. I think you were wise in sticking to the dry goods under the advantages you had.

Please write to me as soon as you can and give some account of yourself.

Do you know D. Bull of London and is the system of Homeopathy [of] much repute there. I have become a Licentiates of that board as well as of the old school. It is a great step in advance. My sister is not yet married. She is keeping house for my brother James who lost his wife 2 years ago. Where is your sister? Give her my kind remembrance.

I enclose you my “[ ] ” – not a first rate likeness. Please accept the assurance of my kind sympathy and best wishes.

Yours cordially,

Thomas W. Poole.

Fowlers in Lanark County? Well we had a Heck of a Coroner Named Fowler

Fowlers in Lanark County? Well we had a Heck of a Coroner Named Fowler



perth remembered


Someone asked me how many Fowlers there were in Lanark County. How ling had the name been around? Well I found a couple of prominent Fowlers.


The Doctor’s House was erected in the 1840s by Dr. James Nichol who arrived in Perth from Scotland in 1837. Dr. Nichol was one of Perth’s first surgeons. He also acted as a gaol surgeon and then as a justice of the peace from 1854 until his sudden death in 1864. Following Dr. Nichol’s death, his son Dr. James Nichol Jr. occupied and practised in the building and was followed by Dr. Robert Howdon, Dr. Richard Victor Fowler and Dr. Arthur Coulson Fowler. Dr. Arthur Coulson Fowler used the residence as his home and practice until 1972.



The “Doctor’s House” at 22 Wilson St. is aptly named as it has been both residence and office/surgery for five eminent doctors. Dr. James Nichol arrived in Perth from Scotland in 1837 and around 1840 had the stone building erected with an adjoining frame building for his surgery. Dr. Nicol was gaol surgeon and justice of the peace from 1854 until his sudden death in 1864. His son, Dr. James Nichol Jr., continued the medical practice from this residence. In the early days, doctors prepared and dispensed their own medicines, so this was a drugstore as well as an office, surgery and home. For a short time, Dr. Robert Howdon, surgeon, called this place home, before two Doctors Fowler became owners. Dr. Richard Victor Fowler moved to this location in 1896 and continued until his son, Dr. Arthur Coulson Fowler took over the practice in 1926 until his retirement in 1972. It was during Dr. Richard Victor’s time that the dormer window above the front door was added to give additional light to the upstairs. During the 19th century, a narrow barnlet joined the house to the peg barn that housed the doctor’s horse, their much-needed means of travel as they made their way throughout the countryside. This well-crafted stone house is an excellent example of the skills of the early stone masons of the day.


Dr. Arthur Coulson Fowler


Clipped from

  1. The Ottawa Journal,
  2. 25 Mar 1952, Tue,
  3. Page 3 -

    Clipped from

    1. The Ottawa Journal,
    2. 10 Nov 1953, Tue,
    3. Page 20 -

      Clipped from

      1. The Ottawa Journal,
      2. 23 Jan 1954, Sat,
      3. Page 9
      4. Image may contain: 10 people, people standing and suit


        Page Liked · September 14, 2015Edited 

        FALL 1972. Pretty sure some of you would have had one or more of these fine gentlemen as a doctor in Perth shown here at Dr. Fowler’s retirement party. Back row, left to right: Dr. David Craig and behind him is Dr.McLean, Dr. Kidd, Dr. Bell, Dr. Church and Dr.Tweedie. Sitting are Dr.Mackey, Dr. Fowler and Dr. Holmes. Dr. Vaughan and Dr . Ryan in front.

        Dr. Fowler was my first doctor, then Dr. Church and finally Dr. Craig. Thanks to Mary-Ellen Hogan for sending this picture i


        where you can buy all Linda Seccaspina’s books-You can also read Linda in The Townships Sun and theSherbrooke Record and and Screamin’ Mamas (USACome and visit the Lanark County Genealogical Society Facebook page– what’s there? Cool old photos–and lots of things interesting to read. Also check out The Tales of Carleton Place. Tales of Almonte and Arnprior Then and Now.



  4. The Doctor is In! Dr. James Stewart Nichol

  5. The Doctor is In! George Griffith of Carleton Place

  6. Before and After in Carleton Place –The Doctor is in!

  7. Ghostly Images at Doctor Johnson’s House?

  8. Shades of The Godfather in Dr. Preston’s Office in Carleton Place

    They Lived and Died in Lanark County

    The Nurses of Carleton Place

    Dr.Preston Was in the House — The Case of the Severed Foot

    “2,000 people on the streets”–Dr. Finlay McEwen of Carleton Place

    The Abandoned Smiths Falls Hospital 2011

    1980 Statistics for The Carleton Place and District Memorial Hospital

Victorian Surgery — Beware of Content Ahead!!! Seriously!

Victorian Surgery — Beware of Content Ahead!!! Seriously!

LTIPL000076748f.jpgYesterday I posted this photo of an unknown Lanark County gal and June Pitry on the LCGS thought she had lost a leg but Beck Baxter from Tales of Carleton Place said:



Becky Baxter Definitely her other shoe…



I said to myself, “Thank God!”

Tons of people hate going to the doctor, and hate the possibility of going into surgery even more. People often ask “What if it hurts?” or “What if I wake up while I’m under?” These are common fears that we have when we’re most vulnerable, despite the fact that doctors and surgeons are highly trained professionals. Hospitals are, for the most part, incredibly clean institutions, or at least cleaner than they’ve ever been.

However, this wasn’t true back in Victorian times. Though Victorians saw introductions to modern surgical advances like aesthetics and the concept of germs, surgery was a bleak and unforgiving practice before these developments. Unfortunately, many patients died from these “advancements.”

Not all medicines were safe! Amputation was prevalent during periods of war. Three of every four operations were amputations. When an amputation was performed, the patient was given wine to drink so that the pain would be reduced. The doctor also soaked a rag with chloroform and applied it to the patient’s mouth and nose.

He would, however, need to periodically remove the rag to avoid chloroform poisoning from occurring. The surgeon first used a tourniquet to tie off the blood flow. Many patients died of shock or terrible pain after the surgeries.

Joseph Townend was born into an impoverished Methodist family in Yorkshire in 1806. When he was a young child, he attempted to lift a kettle from its “reekon” (the pot-hook) when his apron caught fire. He remembered “being laid upon the floor” and having his wounds “saturated with treacle, in order to extract the fire”. His burns were extensive and, when they healed, his right arm was fused to his side. Years later, when he was working in a cotton mill, he decided to go to the Manchester Infirmary to have his arm separated.

Once at the hospital, a male attendant wound a thick bandage over his eyes, then led him up an alley to the operating theatre, which was packed with medical students. A surgeon gruffly warned: “Now, young man, I tell you, if when you feel the knife you should jerk, or even stir – you will do it at the hazard of your life.” Anaesthetics such as chloroform would not be invented for another 23 years and no analgesic (such as whiskey or laudanum) was offered. All Townend could hope for was a well-sharpened knife and the surgeon’s experienced hands.

I’m convinced that if needed to undergo surgery back then, I would have rather actively denied that I had a broken limb and just live my life in pain. Could you imagine getting a leg amputated for a fracture?


Things you Didn’t Know About Surgery in the 1800s

Barbers often carried out basic surgical tasks, especially during war.

The earliest surgical anaesthetic was called Ether. It put the patient under, but also induced vomiting and was quite flammable. This was tricky, as operating rooms were lit by candlelight.

Only the poor stayed in hospitals. The wealthy would pay a doctor to attend to them at home.

Any limb with a fracture that pierced the skin had to be amputated.

Many surgeons took pride in wearing their frock coats, still coated with blood.

Surgery was not even considered medicine. Physicians were seen as high class. Surgeons were on par with butchers.


Come and visit the Lanark County Genealogical Society Facebook page– what’s there? Cool old photos–and lots of things interesting to read. Also check out The Tales of Carleton Place and The Tales of Almonte


Hey Even Journalists Can be Sick! Influenza 1918

More Family Names– Death by Influenza

Death by Influenza 1918- Any Names you Recognize?

They Lived and Died in Lanark County

What was Puking Fever? Child Bed Fever?

Think the Smallpox issue on Outlander was far fetched?

Smallpox in Carleton Place — Did You Know?

The Great White Plague

Spanish Influenza in Lanark County from the Perth Courier — Names Names

Dr.Cram and Dr. Scott Drowning 1907 –Cram Genealogy

Dr.Cram and Dr. Scott Drowning 1907 –Cram Genealogy


Watertown New York Daily Times 1907



Clipped from The Ottawa Journal,  03 Aug 1906, Fri,  Page 1


Come and visit the Lanark County Genealogical Society Facebook page– what’s there? Cool old photos–and lots of things interesting to read. Also check out The Tales of Carleton Place.

Information where you can buy all Linda Seccaspina’s books-You can also read Linda in The Townships Sun andScreamin’ Mamas (USA)






They Once Lived in My Home– Arthur Cram

More “Clippings” on the Local Crams

The Rosamond Christmas Party 1863-or- When Billie Brown and I Slid Down Old Cram’s Cellar Door

After I Read an Obit About Mrs. William Cram I also Found Out

Donald Cram — Nobel Prize for Chemistry

Searching for Elizabeth Cram–Updates on Andrew Waugh

Searching for Joey Cram of Carleton Place

I Now have Part of Joey Cram

The Doctor is In! Dr. James Stewart Nichol



*”The Doctor’s House” 22 Wilson Street Perth Ontario-Photo: Rideau Heritage Initiative 2006-Perth Remembered

Perth Courier, March 4, 1864

Death of Dr. James Stewart Nichol

The subject of this meager obituary notice was born in Langholm, Dumfrieshire, Scotland.  When about ten years old he was sent to receive an education at the grammar school in the town of Dumfries, situated about thirty miles from his birth place.  An uncle, resident in India, who had, by his own talent and energy, raised himself to an honorable and lucrative post in the civil service, generously supplied the means.  That he did not loiter away his time at the Dumfries Academy was have reason to know.  Not very long since the writer heard him at site translate a portion of (illegible word)—not the easiest of classical authors—with as much ease and readiness as many students fresh from their collegiate course.

Our impression is that in respecting a Classical attainment he must have stood above average.  His natural ability was undoubted as all who have had any intercourse with him can testify.  But few professional men who have lead so toilsome a life retain so vivid and correct a recollection of their youthful studies.  From Dumfries he went to Edinburgh.  Having attended the usual classes and undergone, we doubt not, with credit to himself, the prescribed examination, he received his medical diploma.  We are not aware that he ever practiced in any part of Scotland.  Soon after having completed his studies he married a woman he had known in youth and to whom he was much attached.

Thereafter he and his wife from whom, by an unexpected and lamentable death, he was separated, came to this town in 1837.  The period of his residence here has been upwards of 26 years and great changes have taken place since then both in the town and in the vicinity.  But two medical men—the late Dr. Horsey and Dr. Wilson, who much and deservedly respected, still lingers amongst us—was here when he came.  By his energy, skill and humbleness of manner and language, which, were sometimes rough but not offensive to his patients, he soon acquired an extensive practice.  Down to the day of his death, his practice had rather grown than decreased and we are informed that both father and son who of late has been associated with him, have had calls more than sufficient to occupy their time.  His experience as a physician no one ever questioned.

In the department of surgery he was a practised, skillful and successful surgeon.  We remember to have heard him remark that he had paid special attention to this branch of medicine at college, having attended lectures on surgery two sessions.  As a physician he was much trusted and respected and as a friend he was always ready to give his advice and assistance and he was universally liked.  Naturally, the doctor whose outgoings and incomings amongst us we shall miss for many a day was possessed of those qualities that excite and attract personal attachment.  With very many he was a great favourite.

His removal at this time, therefore is regarded and felt as a public calamity.  It is the general conviction that as a medical practitioner he never had an equal throughout this region of the country.  He was of great kindness of disposition and often when ill able to do so, gave his services freely and with a generosity that did credit to his heart but which not infrequently proved to himself and his family a source of embarrassment and privation, remitted many a debt of long standing.

The poor he could not ask or urge for payment and even those well able to pay him he found it difficult to remind of their obligation.  Contrary to the opinion of those who were not acquainted with him or his ways our deceased friend, when the case in hand was of such a nature as to demand it, was kind and genial.  Under a rather cool and to an ordinary observer, an utterly careless and unfeeling exterior, there throbbed a tender, warm heart.  Several instances of this characteristic has gone under the writer’s notice.  We happened to be present on one occasion when he was engaged in adjusting the bandages on a broken arm.  We remarked “you are awfully rough”.  The remark, which casual and jocular as it was said, seemed to pain him and with a kind of expression of regret and sorrow depicted on his face, he answered “do you really think so”  He told the writer of this sketch in the course of a conversation during a call made upon him immediately after the accident happened which terminated in his lameness that he had been thinking of his mother all the previous night.

At the time we were struck and touched by the remark as indicating a softness which, judging from the outward appearance, we would hardly have expected.  Not long ago an acquaintance informed us that a relative of his own had got one hand engaged in a saw mill.  The injuries terminated in the loss of all the fingers on one hand.  The doctor told our informant that he knew from the first time he saw the hand that all the fingers would have to be amputated.  The fingers were taken off one by one and at intervals.  The reason afterwards assigned by the doctor for having pursued this course was to avoid shocking the feelings of the patient—a workman with a family to support and gave him time to accustom his mind to the loss.  Free then, from hard heartedness, no one could accuse him of pretense or of insincerity.  His disregard of appearances he carried, we feel, to excess, as all men are apt to do, who have an instinctive abhorrence of them.  The cause of the doctor’s death was apoplexy.

The day before the sad event occurred, he had returned from a visit to *his son-in-law Dr. Howden of Almonte, complaining of fatigue.  Much against his own wishes and contrary to the advice of his family, he went to see a young boy, since deceased, on the afternoon of the day, on the evening of which he died.  While there, his son, Dr. James Nichol, whose services were at the same time needed in another quarter, was anxious to have his presence and assistance in connection with a perilous and rather complicated case.  Shortly after he arrived and while assisting his son the doctor’s head was seen to decline gently at first and then his steady, lifeless frame fell across the foot of the bed on the edge of which he had been sitting.  With the utmost calmness and self possession, we are told by those who witnessed the scene, the young doctor went between his father and the bedside of the sick woman, dividing his attention between both. And it was only when he saw he could do no more for the one and that the other was out of danger that he turned aside and wept.

Few indeed so young as he have acted a part so properly and praiseworthy.  It augers well for his future success.  We hear but no opinion expressed regarding the youthful doctor and it is entirely favorable.  Though young, he has had advantages under the skillful training of his father which few practitioners enjoy in the early stages of their careers.  And we have little doubt but the confidence and patronage accorded to his father will be transferred to the son and we hope that while mother and sisters and brothers lament him who has been taken away they are the blessed with the one who is left.

The funeral took place on Tuesday last, the 1st inst., at 2:00 pm.  It was the largest funeral that we remember to have seen in Perth.  Persons from Lanark, Dalhousie, Sherbrooke, Smith’s Falls, Ramsay, Ottawa and other distant places were present.  On all hands, expressions of regret were heard from the old as well as the young, from the serious and the thoughtful alike at the removal in the prime of life (the doctor was 52 at the time of his death) of a physician in whose skill such a large degree of confidence reposed.  For some years the doctor held the office of mayor of the town and was one of the first councillors chosen after the municipal law came into force.  He was also the first mayor of Perth.




*The Doctor’s House was erected in the 1840s by Dr. James Nichol who arrived in Perth from Scotland in 1837. Dr. Nichol was one of Perth’s first surgeons. He also acted as a gaol surgeon and then as a justice of the peace from 1854 until his sudden death in 1864. Following Dr. Nichol’s death, his son Dr. James Nichol Jr. occupied and practiced in the building and was followed by Dr. Robert Howdon, Dr. Richard Victor Fowler and Dr. Arthur Coulson Fowler. Dr. Arthur Coulson Fowler used the residence as his home and practice until 1972.-Perth Remembered


*Perth Courier, March 3, 1882-Dr. Howden

Mr. James Sharpe left on Tuesday morning for Manitoba.  In a short time, Dr. Howden intends leaving for there also and it is probably he will become a permanent resident of the prairie city with a view of practicing his profession there.

Dr. Howden, with his daughter Mary, left for Winnipeg on Wednesday.  Some time during the summer when a suitable dwelling home can be got, the remainder of the family will follow.  The doctor leaves this place amongst the general regret of his patients and acquaintances generally.  His well known and acknowledged skill will be very much missed in this vicinity. Dr. Howden was the third doctor in Almonte.



Shades of The Godfather in Dr. Preston’s Office in Carleton Place

They Lived and Died in Lanark County

The Nurses of Carleton Place

Dr.Preston Was in the House — The Case of the Severed Foot

“2,000 people on the streets”–Dr. Finlay McEwen of Carleton Place

The Abandoned Smiths Falls Hospital 2011

1980 Statistics for The Carleton Place and District Memorial Hospital

Come and visit the Lanark County Genealogical Society Facebook page– what’s there? Cool old photos–and lots of things interesting to read.

Information where you can buy all Linda Seccaspina’s books-You can also read Linda in Hometown News and now in The Townships Sun

What was Puking Fever? Child Bed Fever?


Yesterday I read that when one had appendicitis in years gone by– it was simply called “Inflammation of the Bowels”– I found that mindboggling until I found a list of other names. Feast your eyes on this–like Puking Fever was for someone with a milk disorder? Which today would be called being Lactose Intolerant..


This old house is located at Clydeville, on lot 9, concession 3 of Lanark Township and was at one time the home of a Doctor from Lanark Village.

Property pictured on Con. 3 lot 9 belonged to Dr. Holmes of Lanark. At one time the Manson family of Middleville rented this property. In the past two years it has been restored/renovated and is once again beautiful– Kevin Bingley

Thank you Kevin!!


List compiled by Don Wright.

Ablepsy – Blindness
Ague – Malarial Fever
American plague – Yellow fever
Anasarca – Generalized massive edema
Aphonia – Laryngitis
Aphtha – The infant disease “thrush”
Apoplexy – Paralysis due to stroke
Asphycsia/Asphicsia – Cyanotic and lack of oxygen
Atrophy – Wasting away or diminishing in size.
Bad Blood – Syphilis
Bilious fever – Typhoid, malaria, hepatitis or elevated temperature and bile emesis
Biliousness – Jaundice associated with liver disease
Black plague or death – Bubonic plague
Black fever – Acute infection with high temperature and dark red skin lesions and high mortality rate
Black pox – Black Small pox
Black vomit – Vomiting old black blood due to ulcers or yellow fever
Blackwater fever – Dark urine associated with high temperature
Bladder in throat – Diphtheria (Seen on death certificates)
Blood poisoning – Bacterial infection; septicemia
Bloody flux – Bloody stools
Bloody sweat – Sweating sickness
Bone shave – Sciatica
Brain fever – Meningitis
Breakbone – Dengue fever
Bright’s disease – Chronic inflammatory disease of kidneys
Bronze John – Yellow fever
Bule – Boil, tumor or swelling
Cachexy – Malnutrition
Cacogastric – Upset stomach
Cacospysy – Irregular pulse
Caduceus – Subject to falling sickness or epilepsy
Camp fever – Typhus; aka Camp diarrhea
Canine madness – Rabies, hydrophobia
Canker – Ulceration of mouth or lips or herpes simplex
Catalepsy – Seizures / trances
Catarrhal – Nose and throat discharge from cold or allergy
Cerebritis – Inflammation of cerebrum or lead poisoning
Chilblain – Swelling of extremities caused by exposure to cold
Child bed fever – Infection following birth of a child
Chin cough – Whooping cough
Chlorosis – Iron deficiency anemia
Cholera – Acute severe contagious diarrhea with intestinal lining sloughing
Cholera morbus – Characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, elevated temperature, etc. Could be appendicitis
Cholecystitus – Inflammation of the gall bladder
Cholelithiasis – Gall stones
Chorea – Disease characterized by convulsions, contortions and dancing
Cold plague – Ague which is characterized by chills
Colic – An abdominal pain and cramping
Congestive chills – Malaria
Consumption – Tuberculosis
Congestion – Any collection of fluid in an organ, like the lungs
Congestive chills – Malaria with diarrhea
Congestive fever – Malaria
Corruption – Infection
Coryza – A cold
Costiveness – Constipation
Cramp colic – Appendicitis
Crop sickness – Overextended stomach
Croup – Laryngitis, diphtheria, or strep throat
Cyanosis – Dark skin color from lack of oxygen in blood
Cynanche – Diseases of throat
Cystitis – Inflammation of the bladder
Day fever – Fever lasting one day; sweating sickness
Debility – Lack of movement or staying in bed
Decrepitude – Feebleness due to old age
Delirium tremens – Hallucinations due to alcoholism
Dengue – Infectious fever endemic to East Africa
Dentition – Cutting of teeth
Deplumation – Tumor of the eyelids which causes hair loss
Diary fever – A fever that lasts one day
Diptheria – Contagious disease of the throat
Distemper – Usually animal disease with malaise, discharge from nose and throat, anorexia
Dock fever – Yellow fever
Dropsy – Edema (swelling), often caused by kidney or heart disease
Dropsy of the Brain – Encephalitis
Dry Bellyache – Lead poisoning
Dyscrasy – An abnormal body condition
Dysentery – Inflammation of colon with frequent passage of mucous and blood
Dysorexy – Reduced appetite
Dyspepsia – Indigestion and heartburn. Heart attack symptoms
Dysury – Difficulty in urination
Eclampsy – Symptoms of epilepsy, convulsions during labor
Ecstasy – A form of catalepsy characterized by loss of reason
Edema – Nephrosis; swelling of tissues
Edema of lungs – Congestive heart failure, a form of dropsy
Eel thing – Erysipelas
Elephantiasis – A form of leprosy
Encephalitis – Swelling of brain; aka sleeping sickness
Enteric fever – Typhoid fever
Enterocolitis – Inflammation of the intestines
Enteritis – Inflations of the bowels
Epitaxis – Nose bleed
Erysipelas – Contagious skin disease, due to Streptococci with vesicular and bulbous lesions
Extravasted blood – Rupture of a blood vessel
Falling sickness – Epilepsy
Fatty Liver – Cirrhosis of liver
Fits – Sudden attack or seizure of muscle activity
Flux – An excessive flow or discharge of fluid like hemorrhage or diarrhea
Flux of humour – Circulation
French pox – Syphilis
Gathering – A collection of pus
Glandular fever – Mononucleosis
Great pox – Syphilis
Green fever / sickness – Anemia
Grippe/grip – Influenza like symptoms
Grocer’s itch – Skin disease caused by mites in sugar or flour
Heart sickness – Condition caused by loss of salt from body
Heat stroke – Body temperature elevates because of surrounding environment temperature and body does not perspire to reduce temperature. Coma and death result if not reversed
King’s evil – Tuberculosis of neck and lymph glands
Hectical complaint – Recurrent fever
Hematemesis – Vomiting blood
Hematuria – Bloody urine
Hemiplegy – Paralysis of one side of body
Hip gout – Osteomylitis
Horrors – Delirium tremens
Hydrocephalus – Enlarged head, water on the brain
Hydropericardium – Heart dropsy
Hydrophobia – Rabies
Hydrothroax – Dropsy in chest
Hypertrophic – Enlargement of organ, like the heart
Impetigo – Contagious skin disease characterized by pustules
Inanition – Physical condition resulting from lack of food
Infantile paralysis – Polio
Intestinal colic – Abdominal pain due to improper diet
Jail fever – Typhus
Jaundice – Condition caused by blockage of intestines
Kruchhusten – Whooping cough
Lagrippe – Influenza
Lockjaw – Tetanus or infectious disease affecting the muscles of the neck and jaw. Untreated, it is fatal in 8 days
Long sickness – Tuberculosis
Lues disease – Syphilis
Lues venera – Venereal disease
Lumbago – Back pain
Lung fever – Pneumonia
Lung sickness – Tuberculosis
Lying in – Time of delivery of infant
Malignant sore throat – Diphtheria
Mania – Insanity
Marasmus – Progressive wasting away of body, like malnutrition
Membranous Croup – Diphtheria
Meningitis – Inflations of brain or spinal cord
Metritis – Inflammation of uterus or purulent vaginal discharge
Miasma – Poisonous vapors thought to infect the air
Milk fever – Disease from drinking contaminated milk, like undulant fever or brucellosis
Milk leg – Post partum thrombophlebitis
Milk sickness – Disease from milk of cattle which had eaten poisonous weeds
Mormal – Gangrene
Morphew – Scurvy blisters on the body
Mortification – Gangrene of necrotic tissue
Myelitis – Inflammation of the spine
Myocarditis – Inflammation of heart muscles
Necrosis – Mortification of bones or tissue
Nephrosis – Kidney degeneration
Nepritis – Inflammation of kidneys
Nervous prostration – Extreme exhaustion from inability to control physical and mental activities
Neuralgia – Described as discomfort, such as “Headache” was neuralgia in head
Nostalgia – Homesickness
Palsy – Paralysis or uncontrolled movement of controlled muscles. It was listed as “Cause of death”
Paroxysm – Convulsion
Pemphigus – Skin disease of watery blisters
Pericarditis – Inflammation of heart
Peripneumonia – Inflammation of lungs
Peritonotis – Inflammation of abdominal area
Petechial Fever – Fever characterized by skin spotting
Puerperal exhaustion – Death due to child birth
Phthiriasis – Lice infestation
Phthisis – Chronic wasting away or a name for tuberculosis
Plague – An acute febrile highly infectious disease with a high fatality rate
Pleurisy – Any pain in the chest area with each breath
Podagra – Gout
Poliomyelitis – PolioPotter’s asthma – Fibroid pthisis
Pott’s disease – Tuberculosis of spine
Puerperal exhaustion – Death due to childbirth
Puerperal fever – Elevated temperature after giving birth to an infant
Puking fever – Milk sickness
Putrid fever – Diphtheria.
Quinsy – Tonsillitis.
Remitting fever – Malaria
Rheumatism – Any disorder associated with pain in joints
Rickets – Disease of skeletal system
Rose cold – Hay fever or nasal symptoms of an allergy
Rotanny fever – (Child’s disease)
Rubeola – German measles
Sanguineous crust – Scab
Scarlatina – Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever – A disease characterized by red rash
Scarlet rash – Roseola
Sciatica – Rheumatism in the hips
Scirrhus – Cancerous tumors
Scotomy – Dizziness, nausea and dimness of sight
Scrivener’s palsy – Writer’s cramp
Screws – Rheumatism
Scrofula – Tuberculosis of neck lymph glands. Progresses slowly with abscesses and pistulas develop. Young person’s disease
Scrumpox – Skin disease, impetigo
Scurvy – Lack of vitamin C. Symptoms of weakness, spongy gums and hemmoraging under skin.
Septicemia – Blood poisoning Shakes – Delirium tremens
Shaking – Chills, ague
Shingles – Viral disease with skin blisters
Ship fever – Typhus
Siriasis – Inflammation of the brain due to sun exposure
Sloes – Milk sickness
Small pox – Contagious disease with fever and blisters
Softening of brain – Result of stroke or hemorrhage in the brain, with an end result of the tissue softening in that area
Sore throat distemper – Diphtheria or quinsy
Spanish influenza – Epidemic influenza
Spasms – Sudden involuntary contraction of muscle or group of muscles, like a convulsion
Spina bifida – Deformity of spine
Spotted fever – Either typhus or meningitis
Sprue – Tropical disease characterized by intestinal disorders and sore throat
St. Anthony’s fire – Also erysipelas, but named so because of affected skin areas are bright red in appearance
St. Vitas dance – Ceaseless occurrence of rapid complex jerking movements performed involuntary
Stomatitis – Inflammation of the mouth
Stranger’s fever – Yellow fever
Strangery – Rupture
Sudor anglicus – Sweating sickness
Summer complaint – Diarrhea, usually in infants caused by spoiled milk
Sunstroke – Uncontrolled elevation of body temperature due to environment heat. Lack of sodium in the body is a predisposing cause
Swamp sickness – Could be malaria, typhoid or encephalitis
Sweating sickness – Infectious and fatal disease common to UK in 15th century
Tetanus – Infectious fever characterized by high fever, headache and dizziness
Thrombosis – Blood clot inside blood vessel Thrush – Childhood disease characterized by spots on mouth, lips and throat
Tick fever – Rocky mountain spotted fever
Toxemia of pregnancy – Eclampsia
Trench mouth – Painful ulcers found along gum line, Caused by poor nutrition and poor hygiene
Tussis convulsiva – Whooping cough
Typhus – Infectious fever characterized high fever, headache, and dizziness
Variola – Smallpox
Venesection – Bleeding
Viper’s dance – St. Vitus Dance
Water on brain – Enlarged head
White swelling – Tuberculosis of the bone
Winter fever – Pneumonia
Womb fever – Infection of the uterus.
Worm fit – Convulsions associated with teething, worms, elevated temperature or diarrhea
Yellowjacket – Yellow fever.

Perth Courier, July 10, 1874-Dr Ferguson of Carleton Place

Change of Base Among the M.D.sDr. Ferguson, of Lanark, has removed to Carleton Place to practice, and Dr. Joseph Campbell of Bristol, has moved to Lanark to supply his place, which no doubt he will do with efficiency.

Perth Courier, September 4, 1874.

Illness of Dr. Ferguson—We regret to learn that Dr. Ferguson, of Carleton Place, is confined to his late residence in Lanark Village by a severe attack of typhoid fever.  We trust that he may speedily become convalescent.

Carleton Place Herald- 1888

Two new medical men have come to cast their lot with us during the past week, Dr. Downing from Lanark, whose office is in the Struthers block, and Dr. Smith, from Brockville whose office is in the brick building opposite the Taylor block.

Lanark County Genealogical Society Website

Information where you can buy all Linda Seccaspina’s books-You can also read Linda in Hometown News


Related Reading

Think the Smallpox issue on Outlander was far fetched?

Smallpox in Carleton Place — Did You Know?

The Great White Plague

I Will Take Some Opium to Go Please —The “Drug Dispensary” at the Chatterton House Hotel



Dr.Preston Was in the House — The Case of the Severed Foot



It seems in the old days people used to jump from trains a lot in this area, and many a mishap happened. I have read at least a dozen accounts today of people having terrible accidents. The man of the hour that seem to come to the rescue all the time was our very own Dr. Preston of Bridge Street.


Newton Switzer of Ashton exhibited a remarkable piece of fortitude after getting his right foot caught off by a passing train in April of 1899. Switzer was on the No. 7 train at 3 am on the way to Carleton Place. After passing the railway bridge the train slowed up so the young fellow decided to jump off a platform of the slowly moving train at Anable’s Crossing. He missed his footing and fell under the train.

When he realized he could not stand up, he mechanically picked up his severed member, put it under his arm, and dragged himself to Samuel Dunfield’s house. Another week, another train mishap, and Dr. Preston from Carleton Place was the one that was always called. Throughout the whole ordeal it was said the brave young man never lost consciousness. Dr. Preston said he exhibited remarkable pluck.
Dr. Preston’s office was located at 104 Bridge Street. 
The property was originally owned by Edmund Morphy. Later owners include James McDiarmid, Allan McDonald, John McEwen, Archibald Gillies and Alexander Forbes Stewart. Stewart sold the property to Dr. Richard F. Preston in 1883 for $1,000. This site was listed as “vacant” in town assessment roles of 1885 – 1889. From 1890 – 1897 it was listed as “unfinished”. The home originally had a stable behind it, kept by a Mr. Halpenny who drove the buggy for the doctor.– Carleton Place and Beckwith Heritage Museum
Other Photos-Linda Seccaspina